ROTTERDAM – In riots between Orangeists and a volunteer corps of Rotterdam patriots might be a fatality. In Prinsestraat the Rangers opened fire on their attackers.

The citizen company of patriots from ward number 9 brought so cornered by a mob that Van Zwijndrecht lieutenant gave to open fire command. There would be someone killed, but the authorities have not yet confirmed.

The company headed by Lieutenant Van Zwijndrecht was busy preparing for their night patrol. A large crowd gathered himself back then. During the volunteer corps march Lieutenant Van Zwijndrecht was so threatened by anyone from the group. The man was arrested and taken to the town hall.

The arrest made atmosphere became even grimmer. Zwijndrecht could open that not unlike the fire. This salvo over the heads of the crowd made people temporarily withdrew and the company could continue its journey.

When they arrived at the town hall atmosphere was threatened again. There was shouting, threatened and threw stones. Again the lieutenant decided to show that there is not to be trifled with the company and gave the order to fire. This time there were seven wounded by shots. According to some rumors is one of those wounded now deceased.

At City Hall was then beaten alarm. Other militiamen were mobilized. Several rioters were arrested.

Catherina M., nicknamed Kaat Mossel, one of the instigators of the ongergeldheden. Maker: Unknown (circa 1800)

Longer time

There have long been tensions between Rotterdam Orangeists and patriots. Although the city council ten patriots and non-patriots are fourteen, in Rotterdam as in other Dutch cities indeed a majority of people the power of the governor, Willem V, wants to limit.

This dichotomy is also visible on the streets. A celebration of the birthday of the governor around 8 March last year was quite problematic. The predominantly low-skilled residents of Achterklooster and other slums are generally Orangist. They pulled into a colorful orange parade through Rotterdam.

In this journey ladies were as Catherine M. (better known as Kaat Mossel) a kaleidoscope Z. (rugged Shack) themselves heard. Rotterdam who clearly had a different view were threatened, harassed and even money cheated "in the name of the prince".

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quite Corps

For this kind of mayhem to go there were in the eyes of the Patriots special vigilantes, released corps. After all the existing militia is apparently not decisive enough to act against this conspiracy between the common people and the elite Orange.

One of the guerrillas was founded by Jan Jacob Elsevier with the motto "lifted, unhurried, steadfast " and was intended for law enforcement in the district 9. This corps exercised from November 1783 regelmatig tot grote frustratie van tegenstanders. Bij de Oranjeaanhang werd dan ook luidkeels geroepen om de afschaffing van deze vrijkorpsen.

An official request for this was not signed in March 2 April following the city council had forbidden this for fear of riots. A day after the shooting in which no company 9 was concerned with the result so wounded and possibly dead.

How did the story proceed?

The city council decided in response to the turmoil fatal of 3 op 4 april 1784 Elsevier to dissolve the Rangers. They would re-focus later as The Palm and from 1785 weather exercise, maar in 1784 the prohibition and censorship still certain patriots publications quite a blow to the anti-Orange Click to Rotterdam.

At present, however, the larger patriot movement succor their supporters Rotterdam. The States of Holland, with important patriots at the helm, namely send a special Commission of Inquiry to restore order in Rotterdam. One of the possible aanstichtsters of riots, Kaat Mossel, together with best friend Chunky Shack on 31 augustus / 1 september 1784 arrested and locked in the cellars of the Hall.

Kaat Mossel was Orangist at heart. Witnesses reported that she was involved with them expired noisy celebration of the birthday of William V 8 March and others placed her too close to unrest 3 op 4 april.

Catherine Mulder known as Kaat Mossel was a familiar sight in Rotterdam from Swans Lane one of the six lanes of the Achterklooster, a people area behind the eastern end of the High Street. She got her nickname because she preferred women of the mussels was giving them each morning at the Roobrug the Spaansekade mussels disapproved of fishermen from Rotterdam and Den Briel. This was an official function and gave her thirty guilders a year.


Arie Verschoor – City growth, History of Rotterdam to 1813 (Zwolle 1999) 370-379

G. van Rijn – 'Kaat Mossel', Rotterdam Yearbook (1890) 158-231

Huygens ING – Catherina Mulder

History of South Holland – Kaat Mossel – The Orange Mastiff

Author: Allard Schellens

published: 14-11-2018

story number: 90